REGULATION, MONITORING AND LAND RELEASE
Accredited organizations in Cambodia include national institutions such as the Cambodian Mine Action Centre (CMAC) and the National Center for Peacekeeping Forces and ERW Clearance (NPMEC); non-profit organizations such as HALO Trust, Mines Advisory Group (MAG), and the Cambodian Self-Help Demining Group (CSHD); and private companies such as BACTEC, Viking and D&Y.
CMAA’s quality assurance (QA) teams ensure on a daily basis that accredited demining organizations are applying their approved management processes and operational procedures in a manner that will result in the safe, effective and efficient clearance of land.
QA teams review the operators' Standard Operating Procedures and verify their compliance with the Cambodian Mine Action Standards (CMAS). In addition to addressing clearance requirements and worksite safety, the CMAS is updated to cover new technologies or innovation as they are introduced, such as the Baseline Survey, the use of Mine Detection Dogs, and Land Release methods.
Cambodia Mine Action Standards
The CMAS is a set of technical standards that guide demining organizations in Cambodia, covering aspects from management to operations. Developed by the CMAA in consultation with experienced demining organizations in the country, the CMAS are based on the International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) and grounded in the country’s context. The CMAS is the basis for demining organizations to comply with and develop their standard operating procedures.
There are currently 13 approved standards out of 16 proposed standards, available in both English and Khmer. Click on the respective chapter below to download a PDF copy or get the full document here.
- Chapter 1 – The Application of Cambodian Mine Action Standards (CMAS)
- Chapter 2 – Accreditation of Demining Organizations and Licensing of Operations
- Chapter 3 – Monitoring of Demining Organizations
- Chapter 4 – The Storage, Transportation and Handling of Explosives
- Chapter 5 – Reporting and Investigation of Demining Incidents
- Chapter 6 – Clearance Requirements Demining
- Chapter 7 – Clearance Requirements UXO
- Chapter 8 – Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD)
- Chapter 9 – Safety and Occupational Health General Requirements S&OH
- Chapter 10 – Safety and Occupational Health
- Chapter 11 – Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
- Chapter 12 – Mechanical Demining (pending approval)
- Chapter 13 –Marking Mine and UXO Hazards (pending approval)
- Chapter 14 – Baseline Survey
- Chapter 15 – Land Release
- Chapter 16 – MDD/EDD (pending approval)
Land release is the process of reclassifying the status of known or suspected mined areas (or parts of those areas) to end state land. Land is released from the suspicion of mines or explosive remnants of war (ERWs), through non-technical survey, technical survey and/or clearance resources. The end user or authority then has confidence that the land can be used safely. The full process of land release is applied to the known or suspected hazardous areas, as defined by the baseline survey.
The Land Release Policy was developed to accelerate the release of suspected land to reduce the threat from mines/ERWs. Implementing the policy will help achieve the goals set by Cambodia’s 10-Year Extension Request and the National Mine Action Standards (NMAS). The Policy is reiterated in the Cambodian Mine Action Standards (CMAS) No. 15 - Land Release.
There are three ways to release land that is suspected of containing mines/ERWs:
Land released through non-technical survey -The process of collecting and analyzing new and/or existing information about an area suspected of containing a mine/ERW hazard normally without physical intervention in the area. Also called Baseline Survey, it is governed by the CMAS No. 14.- Baseline Survey. Information from the Baseline Survey will be routinely updated as part of the annual planning process and pre-assessment checks. Accordingly, the national database will also be updated.
Land released through technical survey - The detailed topographical and technical investigation of an area suspected of containing a mine/ERW hazard is done to determine any area requiring clearance, and to release the remaining land from suspicion of having any hazards.
Land released through clearance – The physical processing of an area to a specified depth in accordance with CMAS No. 6 – Clearance Requirements. The Government accepts that no liability shall rest with an accredited operator for land that is released as long as the process of releasing the land (whether through non-technical survey, technical survey or clearance) has fully complied with the CMAS, has been conducted by an accredited operator using accredited standard operating procedures and has been subjected to quality assurance by CMAA.
INSERT GRAPHICS ON LAND RELEASE PROCESS